Water is among the major natural resources and the basic human requirement. It is a priceless national asset, the optimum utilization and efficient development of which is very significant for the growth of the country. Water resources in India includes the oceans that surround the Indian peninsula like the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the inland rivers, rain water and ground water.
The profuse water resources in India are adequate for water supply throughout India if only the water supply is managed efficiently. “Water resource management” in our country is the need of the hour to sustain the huge Indian population. The different areas of the Indian economy like agriculture, household, domestic, industry, environment, power, transport and fisheries are linked to water management. The Indian water infrastructure system includes tapping of the water sources, facilities of water storage, regular cleaning of water tanks, suitable water treatment and water purification, use of water, water pollution, problems faced due to shortage of water, water policies in India for water conservation and harvesting etc.
An overview of the water resources in India shows that it is water resource management which is very crucial and where India fails badly. The Government of India has set up many water management bodies and systems in India for the efficient management of Indian water resources. Some of these include the Central Water Commission, National Water Development Agency, Central Ground Water Board, National Projects Construction Corporation Ltd. etc. The policies undertaken by the Government of India for the same are Irrigation Management Policy, National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development Plan, National Policy Guidelines, Water Information Bill, River Basin Organization Policy, etc. Other water reserve projects have also been taken up by “Ministry of Water Resources” like construction of dams.
Continuous and undisturbed water supply is the basic need of Indian industries as India is mainly an agricultural society. Besides, safe supply of drinking water is an important area where the Indian Government needs work more since groundwater is not an unending source of water.
The huge water requirements in India have created a situation of water crisis where an efficient water conservation strategy is needed. Some of the steps that have been taken in this area are water treatment plans, careful inspection of the divisions of water supply and also the projects undertaken for controlling water pollution, construction of reservoirs and dams etc. Proper water conservation methods at the right time can solve the problem of water shortage in India.