Pristine, tranquil, unperturbed and magnificent, the mountain ranges in India are there to bewitch you, captivate and enthrall you! The snowy, swaying mountains, the emerald meadows, the lofty crests, emerald meadows or the lush dense valleys are always evoking a sense of sanctity and a feeling of spirituality within! The eight huge Indian Mountain Ranges in India are there to captivate you! They also offer ample scope for trekking and eco-tourism. Besides serving as the scenic wonders for India, the mountains also carry an ecological significance. They also act as natural barriers for the country.
- The Himalayans Mountain Ranges
- The Aravalli Mountain Ranges
- The Vindhya Mountain Ranges
- The Satpura Mountain Ranges
- The Karakoram Mountain Ranges
- The Patkai or the Purvanchal Mountain Ranges
- The Eastern Ghats
- The Western Ghats
The mighty Himalayan Mountain Range, popularly known as the Himalayas, actually means the “Abode of Snow”. It happens to be the youngest Mountain in India having a cluster of Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks. The origin of these mountain ranges can be traced back to the collision of the tectonic plates. Almost 50 million years ago, the Eurasian and the Indian plates collided to join the continent of Asia. This in turn resulted in the formation of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. This is why; the mountains are also called the “Fold Mountains”. This highest mountain range worldwide, also consist of some of the high and popular peaks such as the “Mount Everest” laying along side the border of Nepal and China and Kanchenjunga. The Himalayas separate the Tibetan Plateau from the Indian sub-continent.
Covering numerous outlaying, small ranges, the Himalayan ranges cover 6 nations namely, Tibet, India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan and Pakistan. Several mountains in the Himalayan mountain system bear a religious significance both for the Buddhists and also the Hindus. Important rivers originating from this mountain range are Ganga, Indus, Yangtse, Brahmaputra etc. The Alluvial Plain that is the ultimate basin in the region houses almost 1.4 billion people.
The huge Himalayas are home to diverse and rich variety of Flora and Fauna. The type of flora and fauna changes with the change in climate, Soil, rainfall and altitude. Just above the Alluvial Plain is located the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Then there happens to be the Tarai belt comprising of Marshy Medows, since high rainfall is received by the region. The place is home to the Indian Rhinoceros. Again, above the Tarai belt is situated the Bhabar zone of Rocky soils having forests with Sal trees and Chir Pine.
The oldest mountain in India, Aravalli mountain ranges stretches for about 800 km. Running across the northeast through the state of Rajasthan, the Aravalli mountain ranges passes through the southwest, into Haryana and finally ends near the capital city of India, Delhi. Guru Shikhar peak located at Mount Abu is the highest peak of the Aravallis. It has a height of about 1722 m.
The Vindhya mountain range lies in Central India. It is believed that the wastes formed by the weathering of the Aravallis resulted in the formation of the Vindhyas. This mountain range separates south India from North India. It runs at an approximate height of 3000 m. The West end of the Vindhyas is situated in the state of Gujarat. Some of the rivers that flow through this range are the Tapti River, the Ganges, the Godavari and Mahanadi River. Initially though this mountain range was covered with forests yet many human interventions and ecological problems have posed great threats to the range. However, the Vindhya Range provides you with a good holiday spot having many sanctuaries and reserves. The mountain range runs through Gujarta and through Ganges in Mirzapur. The southern and northern regions of the mountain happen to be inhospitable and arid. The southern slopes of the Vindhya mountain range is drained by River Narmada River that next moves towards the Arabian Sea in the west. Popular for the wildlife reserves, the mountain is home to the well-known Ranthambore National park.
The Satpura Range runs from Gujarat and passes through the states of Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Having a triangular shape, the apex of the Satpura Range is at Ratnapuri. The two sides of this mountain range in India run parallel to River Tapti and Narmada. Further, this mountain in India also runs parallel along the Vindhyas in the north. Stretching for about 900 km, the Satpuras consist of many peaks with an average height of about 1000m.
The Karakoram Range
The Karakoram Range is a huge mountain range in India that spans over the borders of Pakistan, India and China. In India, the Karakoram mountain range is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Among Asia’s largest mountain range, the Karakoram happens to be the one of the glaciered range as well, having a length of about 500m. Some of the famous mountains are located in this mountain range such as World’s 2nd largest mountain, K2. Glaciers like the Biafo Glacier and the Siachen Glacier, the Pamir Mountains and the Wakhan Corridor surrounds the Karakoram Mountain Range. The rivers that originate from this mountain range ultimately converge in Pakistan. Though a wide mountain range, yet in comparison to the Himalayas, the range is less inhabited, owing to its ruggedness. The formation of this mountain range is very similar to that of the Himalayas. The range was also formed owing to movements in the tectonic plates.
Situated alongside the eastern border of India and Myanmar, the Purvanchal was formed by the collision of the tectonic plates. Conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys characterize this mountain range. Also known as the Patkai range, this mountain range consists of 3 ranges namely, the Patkai–Bum, the Lushai hills and the the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia. The whole region is covered with forests comprising of sandstones. The peaks in the Purvanchal mountain range are not rugged or high. The ideal route to this mountain range is offered by the Pangsau Pass.
The Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri Range are situated in West India, as the mane itself suggests. The Western Ghats serves as the separation point in between the Deccan Plateau and the coastal plain near the Arabian Sea. Starting from the borders of Maharashtra and Gujarat, the range runs through the Tapti River and passes through Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, finally ending near the southern tip of the country that is in Kanyakumari. Majority of the portion of the Western Ghats is situated in Karnataka. The ghats offer a diverse variety of vegetation from shrubs to forests etc. Marked as one of the biodiversity hotspots in India, the Ghats have the credit for being the home to about one third diversity of flowers found in India. Some well-known National parks in India, such as the Borivali National Park and the Nagarhole National Park are located in the Western Ghats.
Discontinuous range of mountains, the Eastern Ghats run parallel to the Bay of Bengal. The 4 important rivers flowing through the Eastern Ghats happens to be River Mahanadi, Kaveri, Krishna, Godaveri. At the meeting point of the Western and the Eastern Ghats, lie the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu. Starting from the state of West Bengal and passing through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, the Eastern Ghats finishes at Tamil Nadu.
The mountain ranges in India apart from offering great opportunities for tourism, also acts as natural barriers for the country and prevents India from the cold strong winds from the poles. The mountains in India also influence the climatic conditions in the region, thereby providing with monsoon winds. The mountains in India re therefore immensely useful!