Mountain is a landform with steep slopes that rise high above the surrounding area. Mountains are considered larger than hills but there is really no hard and fast rule to this.
What is considered a hill in one county may be called mountain in another country. Watchung Mountains in the USA are less than 200 meters high while a 400 meters high peak in Himalayas is considered t be a foot hill.
Generally mountain is higher and is steeper than a hill
Mountains are classified into 5 categories on the basis of their physical characteristics.
· Fold Mountains
· Block Mountains
· Dome Mountains
· Volcanic Mountains
· Plateau Mountains
How do can we measure a mountain – To measure a mountain we use Barometer. Barometer helps to measure the air pressure and at the top of the mountains air pressure is lower than the pressure on the ground. By comparing the two we can calculate how tall a mountain is. Another instrument used to measure Mountain is Theodolite. Lately we use Satellite pictures to Measure Mountains.
Water and Ice play an important role providing shape to the mountains.
Mountains are everywhere on Earth in all the continents and even under the sea. A mountain is a truly spectacular sight.
Some of the well known mountain ranges found in each continents are:-
|Antarctica||Antarctic Peninsula, Trans-Antarctic Mountains|
|Africa||Atlas, Eastern African Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands|
|Asia||Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Taurus, Elbrus, Japanese Mountains|
|Europe||Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Apennines, Urals, Balkan|
|North America||Appalachians, Sierra Nevada, Rockies, Lauren tides|
|South America||Andes, Brazilian Highlands|
Some Interesting facts about Mountains
- Some of the world highest and longest mountains lies under the ocean. The Worlds largest Under Water Mountain is Mauna Kea in Hawaii.
- The mid-Atlantic Ridge is the Worlds longest chain of undersea mountains.
- Mount Everest is not the tallest mountain in the world, if we calculate the height of the mountain from the base to the peak. Mauna Kea of Hawaii is the tallest. If we measure the height of the mountain from the centre of the earth, Chimborazo, a volcano in the Andes of Ecuador is the tallest since it is located nearly on the equator where the earth bulges the most. Everest is tallest mountain if we measure the height from above the sea level.
- It is estimated that 12% of the world population leave in Mountain Areas.
- Amongst the entire mountain Areas Alps are densely populated.Worlds top 10 Highest Mountains
We find that all these mountains are located in Asia. Himalayas is made up three parallel ranges – the great Himalayas, the middle Himalayas and the sub Himalayas. We have to learn a lot from the mountains.